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Let’s take a look at some more hormones that are secreted during workouts, along with their physiological effects of our body.

If you missed part one, go back and check it out!


Glucagon is another peptide hormone which is produced in the pancreas. It is responsible for secreting free fatty acids and glucose when the blood sugar levels drop when we exercise.


Cortisol is secreted to provide our bodies with enough energy in order to keep our exercises going. It counters high physical stress and low blood sugar levels. Produced by the adrenal gland, cortisol is a catabolic steroid hormone.
Cortisol breaks down muscle protein and provides it as fuel during prolonged work-outs as opposed to retaining the muscle protein for tissue repair.

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Both these hormones fall under the category of amines and influence the working of sympathetic nervous system and control the functioning of the body during cardio-respiratory exercises.

Epinephrine is commonly known as adrenaline since it is produced by the adrenal gland. It boosts cardiac performance, escalates blood sugar levels, breaks down glycogen for energy and aids in fat metabolism.

Norepinephrine has many identical functions as epinephrine but its distinctive function is to restrict the blood vessels which are not involved during the workout session.


A steroid hormone, testosterone is produced in the adrenal glands of both genders and in the testes and ovaries of male and female respectively.

It prominently controls the workings of the muscle protein. It is also responsible for the growth of skeletal muscles. Testosterone is released in our bodies in case the muscle protein is wrecked.

Human Growth Hormone

As the name suggests, HGH takes care of cell growth in our bodies. It is an anabolic peptide hormone released by the pituitary gland.

Reacting with specific receptor sites HGH is responsible for muscle growth, mineralization of bones, strengthening the immune system, and increases fat metabolism.

It is secreted during high strength training, REM cycle of sleep, and cardio-respiratory exercises.
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is important insulin-like peptide hormone which promotes muscle growth and helps in the functioning of HGH.

Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor BDNF

BDNF is responsible for the production of new cells in the brain. Secretion of HGH and IGH promotes the production of BDNF.

BDNF increases and develops the psychological function.


Understanding the impact of exercise on the hormone levels can help the trainer devise a bespoke training package for the client based on the client requirement. Exercises will vary depending on whether the client is looking for muscle growth, weight loss, or general shaping of the body muscles.

While in initial phases hormones like T, HGH, IGH will be secreted to rejuvenate the impaired tissues, in the long term the same hormones will be utilized more effectively towards muscle growth.

To conclude one must always remember that hormones control the physical and psychological effect of exercises on our body.